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Vaccine. 2008 Nov 5;26(47):5935-43. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.057. Epub 2008 Sep 17.

Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid.

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Department of Immunology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.


Sterile immunity against malaria can be achieved by the induction of IFNgamma-producing CD8(+) T cells that target infected hepatocytes presenting epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). In the present study we evaluate the protective efficacy of a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol based on the delivery of the CD8(+) epitope of Plasmodium berghei CSP into the MHC class I presentation pathway, by either a type III secretion system of live recombinant Salmonella and/or by direct translocation of a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid fusion (ACT-CSP) into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A single intraperitoneal application of the recombinant ACT-CSP toxoid, as well as a single oral immunization with the Salmonella vaccine, induced a specific CD8(+) T cell response, which however conferred only a partial protection on mice against a subsequent sporozoite challenge. In contrast, a heterologous prime/boost vaccination with the live Salmonella followed by ACT-CSP led to a significant enhancement of the CSP-specific T cell response and induced complete protection in all vaccinated mice.

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