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J Pediatr Nurs. 2008 Oct;23(5):345-57. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2008.01.003. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and update.

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Florida State University College of Nursing, 421 Vivian M. Duxbury Hall, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4310, USA.


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, chronic, and pervasive childhood disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate activity level, impulsivity, and inability to sustain attention and concentration. Core symptoms of the disorder are associated with impairment in multiple domains of functioning and often coexist with other psychiatric disorders, the most prevalent being oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. Concerns have been expressed about the overdiagnosis of ADHD, an upsurge in prescription of stimulant medication, and wide variations in practice patterns related to diagnosis and treatment of children with ADHD among primary care providers. Clinical research and expert consensus guidelines over the past decade have increasingly clarified the most effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Hence, the purpose of this article was to provide primary care providers with the most current, evidence-based information on the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD.

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