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Invest New Drugs. 2009 Aug;27(4):304-18. doi: 10.1007/s10637-008-9175-7. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Flexible heteroarotinoid (Flex-Het) SHetA2 inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.


Flexible heteroarotinoids (Flex-Hets) compounds regulate growth, differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells. The hypothesis of this study was that the lead Flex-Het, SHetA2, inhibits angiogenesis by blocking cytokine release from cancer cells. SHetA2 altered secretion of thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) proteins from normal and cancerous ovarian and renal cultures. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression was inhibited in cancer, but not normal cultures. Endothelial tube formation was stimulated by conditioned media from cancer but not normal cultures, and SHetA2 reduced secretion of this angiogenic activity. SHetA2 directly inhibited endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation through G1 cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis. Recombinant TP reversed SHetA2 anti-angiogenic activity. SHetA2 inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis was observed in Caki-1 renal cancer xenografts. In conclusion, SHetA2 inhibits angiogenesis through alteration of angiogenic factor secretion by cancer cells and through direct effects on endothelial cells.

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