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Nat Protoc. 2008;3(10):1589-603. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2008.98.

Using RSAT oligo-analysis and dyad-analysis tools to discover regulatory signals in nucleic sequences.

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Laboratoire de Bioinformatique des Génomes et des Réseaux (BiGRe), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 263, Boulevard du Triomphe, Bruxelles, Belgium.


This protocol explains how to discover functional signals in genomic sequences by detecting over- or under-represented oligonucleotides (words) or spaced pairs thereof (dyads) with the Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools ( Two typical applications are presented: (i) predicting transcription factor-binding motifs in promoters of coregulated genes and (ii) discovering phylogenetic footprints in promoters of orthologous genes. The steps of this protocol include purging genomic sequences to discard redundant fragments, discovering over-represented patterns and assembling them to obtain degenerate motifs, scanning sequences and drawing feature maps. The main strength of the method is its statistical ground: the binomial significance provides an efficient control on the rate of false positives. In contrast with optimization-based pattern discovery algorithms, the method supports the detection of under- as well as over-represented motifs. Computation times vary from seconds (gene clusters) to minutes (whole genomes). The execution of the whole protocol should take approximately 1 h.

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