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Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2008;109(4):e102-7. doi: 10.1159/000142934. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Inflammation in acute kidney injury.

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Division of Nephrology and Center for Immunity, Inflammation and Regenerative Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.


Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) and evidence supporting the involvement of both innate and adaptive immunity in renal IRI has accumulated in recent years. In addition to leukocytes, kidney endothelial cells promote inflammation after IRI by increasing adhesion molecule expression and vascular permeability. Kidney tubular epithelial cells increase complement binding and upregulate toll-like receptors, both of which lead to cytokine/chemokine production in IRI. Activation of kidney resident dendritic cells, interferon-gamma-producing neutrophils, infiltrating macrophages, CD4+ T cells, B cells and invariant natural killer T cells are all implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. The complex interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in renal IRI is still not completely understood, but major advances have been made. This review summarizes these recent advances to further our understanding of the immune mechanisms of acute kidney injury.

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