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Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Sep;25(9):1147-51. doi: 10.1080/02652030802273114.

Genomics of industrial Aspergilli and comparison with toxigenic relatives.

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Research Institute of Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technologies, Central 6, 1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan.


Aspergillus oryzae has been used in Japanese fermentation industries for more than a thousand years. The species produces large amounts of various hydrolytic enzymes and has been successfully applied to modern biotechnology. The size of the A. oryzae genome (37.5 Mb) is very close to that of A. flavus and A. niger, and 20-30% larger than that of either A. nidulans or A. fumigatus. A. oryzae and A. flavus have exactly the same number of aspartic proteinase genes, of which each orthologous pair shares highly conserved amino acid sequences. Synteny analysis with A. fumigatus and A. nidulans showed that the A. oryzae genome has a mosaic structure consisting of syntenic and non-syntenic blocks. In the microorganisms to be compared, the density of the genes having homologs was obviously higher on the syntenic than on the non-syntenic blocks. Expression analysis by the DNA microarray supported the significantly lower expression of genes on the non-syntenic than on the syntenic blocks.

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