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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Oct 1;72(2):597-604. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.05.058.

The observed variance between predicted and measured radiation dose in breast and prostate patients utilizing an in vivo dosimeter.

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Sicel Technologies Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA.



Report the results of using a permanently implantable dosimeter in radiation therapy: determine specific adverse events, degree of migration, and acquire dose measurements during treatment to determine difference between expected and measured dose.


The Dose Verification System is a wireless, permanently implantable metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimeter using a bidirectional antenna for power and data transfer. The study cohort includes 36 breast (33 patients received two devices) and 29 prostate (21 patients received two devices) cancer patients. A total of 1,783 and 1,749 daily dose measurements were obtained on breast and prostate patients, respectively. The measurements were compared with the planned expected dose. Biweekly computed tomography scans were obtained to evaluate migration and the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, was used to evaluate adverse events.


Only Grade I/II adverse events of pain and bleeding were noted. There were only four instances of dosimeter migration of >5 mm from known factors. A deviation of > or =7% in cumulative dose was noted in 7 of 36 (19%) for breast cancer patients. In prostate cancer patients, a > or =7% deviation was noted in 6 of 29 (21%) and 8 of 19 (42%) during initial and boost irradiation, respectively. The two patterns of dose deviation were random and systematic. Some causes for these differences could involve organ movement, patient movement, or treatment plan considerations.


The Dose Verification System was not associated with significant adverse events or migration. The dosimeter can measure dose in situ on a daily basis. The accuracy and utility of the dose verification system complements current image-guided radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques.

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