Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Feb;23(2):97-104. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2008.115. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Hypertensive women with the metabolic syndrome are at risk of renal insufficiency more than men in general population.

Author information

  • 1Central Satakunta Health Federation of Municipalities, Harjavalta, Finland.


The prevalence of renal insufficiency in hypertensive participants without comorbidities affecting renal function is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of renal insufficiency in general hypertensive population. We examined 994 hypertensive participants aged 45-70 years without previously diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease. Renal insufficiency was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation and the US National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Glucose homoeostasis was assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of renal insufficiency was 6.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-8.5). In a multivariate model, the presence of renal insufficiency was predicted by female gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.57 (95% CI 1.90-6.72)), older age (OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.07-1.18)), use of diuretics (OR 2.13 (95% CI 1.19-3.82)) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.79 (95% CI 1.34-5.79)). Newly diagnosed diabetes or prediabetes did not predict renal insufficiency. The prevalence of renal insufficiency was found to be lower than previously reported in hypertensive general population. Metabolic syndrome, but not newly diagnosed diabetes or prediabetes per se, was strongly associated with renal insufficiency especially in women. Renal insufficiency was also associated with the use of diuretics, but the clinical relevance of this finding needs to be clarified.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Support Center