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Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Aug;22(4):657-75. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.07.002.


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Department of Rheumatology, C.S.M. Medical University, RALC Campus, Lucknow, India.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder characterized by cartilage loss. Its prevalence is high, and it is a major cause of disability. The cause of OA is not known; however, current evidence indicates that it is multifactorial. Major risk factors for osteoarthritis are age, female sex, obesity, geographic factors, occupational knee-bending, physical labour, genetic factors and race, joint trauma, vitamin D deficiency, and chondrocalcinosis. Osteoarthritis causes joint pain, stiffness, and limitation of joint function. Knee involvement is the commonest presentation of this disease all over the world. Given the absence of a curative treatment, it is important to treat osteoarthritis as effectively as possible using a multidisciplinary approach tailored to the patient's needs. This article reviews current thinking on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, lifestyle, genetic epidemiology, and management of osteoarthritis in developing countries.

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