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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 16;105(37):14147-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0806350105. Epub 2008 Sep 8.

The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in gram-positive bacteria.

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Department of Molecular, Microbial, and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA.


Cell surface pili in gram-positive bacteria orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity, and the development of biofilms. Recent work revealed that pilus assembly is a biphasic process wherein pilus polymerization is catalyzed by a pilus-specific sortase followed by cell wall anchoring of the pilus that is promoted by the housekeeping sortase. Here, we present molecular genetic and biochemical studies of a heterotrimeric pilus in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, uncovering the molecular switch that terminates pilus polymerization in favor of cell wall anchoring. The prototype pilus contains a major pilin (SpaA) forming the shaft, a tip pilin (SpaC), and another minor pilin (SpaB). Cells lacking SpaB form pilus fibers, but they are largely secreted in the medium, a phenotype also observed when cells lack the housekeeping sortase. Furthermore, the average pilus length is greatly increased in the absence of SpaB. Remarkably, a SpaB mutant that lacks the cell wall sorting signal but contains a critical lysine residue is incorporated in the pilus. However, the resulting pili fail to anchor to the cell wall. We propose that a specific minor pilin acts as the terminal subunit in pilus assembly. Cell wall anchoring ensues when the pilus polymer assembled on the pilus-specific sortase is transferred to the minor pilin presented by the housekeeping sortase via lysine-mediated transpeptidation.

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