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J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Sep;30(9):692-5. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e31816e23a1.

Congenital erythroid and myeloid hypoplasia terminating myelodysplastic syndrome.

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Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.


We describe a 4-month-old infant girl with congenital erythroid and myeloid hypoplasia who developed myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone marrow examination showed severe erythroid and myeloid hypoplasia without dysplastic morphology. Flow cytometry detected autoantibodies to myeloid cells, indicating a diagnosis of Diamond-Blackfan anemia with autoimmune neutropenia. The patient was administered prednisolone and rituximab, which brought the neutrophil count and hemoglobin level to within the normal range. However, bicytopenia recurred at the age of 22 months. She was diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome because of trilineage dysplasia and the clonal abnormality of 46,XX,dup(1)(q21;q32) in bone marrow. She was transplanted with cord blood from an unrelated human leukocyte antigen-matched donor and has since remained in complete remission for 20 months.

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