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Exp Cell Res. 2008 Oct 15;314(17):3130-41. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.08.002. Epub 2008 Aug 15.

Two wobble-splicing events affect ING4 protein subnuclear localization and degradation.

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Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.


ING4 (inhibitor of growth 4) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is implicated as a repressor of cell growth, angiogenesis, cell spreading and cell migration and can suppress loss of contact inhibition in vitro. Another group and we identified four wobble-splicing isoforms of ING4 generated by alternative splicing at two tandem splice sites, GC(N)(7)GT and NAGNAG, which caused canonical (GT-AG) and non-canonical (GC-AG) splice site wobbling selection. Expression of the four ING4 wobble-splicing isoforms did not vary significantly in any of the cell lines examined. Here we show that ING4_v1 is translocated to the nucleolus, indicating that ING4 contains an intrinsic nucleolar localization signal. We further demonstrate that the subcellular localization of ING4 is modulated by two wobble-splicing events at the exon 4-5 boundary, causing displacement from the nucleolus to the nucleus. We also observed that ING4 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that it is subjected to N-terminal ubiquitination. We demonstrate that nucleolar accumulation of ING4 prolongs its half-life, but lack of nucleolar targeting potentially increases ING4 degradation. Taken together, our data suggest that the two wobble-splicing events at the exon 4-5 boundary influence subnuclear localization and degradation of ING4.

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