Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Res. 2008 Oct;108(2):260-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.014. Epub 2008 Sep 5.

Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: the Generation R study.

Author information

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, MD A3-05, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


Concern about potential health impacts of low-level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), BPA, and 14 phthalate metabolites in urine samples of 100 pregnant women from the Generation R study, the Netherlands. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted concentrations were reported, and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and other studies. In general, these metabolites were detectable in the urine of the women from the Generation R study and compared with other groups, they had relatively high-level exposures to OP pesticides and several phthalates but similar exposure to BPA. The median concentrations of total dimethyl (DM) metabolites was 264.0 n mol/g creatinine (Cr) and of total DAP was 316.0 n mol/g Cr. The median concentration of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was 222.0 microg/g Cr; the median concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were above 50 microg/g Cr. The median concentrations of the three secondary metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were greater than 20 microg/g Cr. The data indicate that the Generation R study population provides a wide distribution of selected environmental exposures. Reasons for the relatively high levels and possible health effects need investigation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center