Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Protoc. 2008;3(9):1494-500. doi: 10.1038/nport.2008.141.

A simple and reproducible 96-well plate-based method for the formation of fungal biofilms and its application to antifungal susceptibility testing.

Author information

Department of Biology and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA.


The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly over the past decades. Very often these infections are associated with biofilm formation on implanted biomaterials and/or host surfaces. This has important clinical implications, as fungal biofilms display properties that are dramatically different from planktonic (free-living) populations, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Here we describe a rapid and highly reproducible 96-well microtiter-based method for the formation of fungal biofilms, which is easily adaptable for antifungal susceptibility testing. This model is based on the ability of metabolically active sessile cells to reduce a tetrazolium salt (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) to water-soluble orange formazan compounds, the intensity of which can then be determined using a microtiter-plate reader. The entire procedure takes approximately 2 d to complete. This technique simplifies biofilm formation and quantification, making it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories, a necessary step toward the standardization of antifungal susceptibility testing of biofilms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center