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Kobe J Med Sci. 2008 Jul 18;54(2):E82-96.

Gender differences of dietary self-management behavior affecting control indices in type II diabetes.

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Department of Nursing, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan.



To establish effective dietary self-management behavior for type II male and female diabetics, by focusing on how dietary intake and dietary self-management affect control indices of type II diabetics.


The study group comprised 170 type II diabetics, 93 men (mean age, 63.1+/-8.8 years old) and 77 women (mean age 63.4 +/- 10.2 years old). The final analyses of data collected from subjects comprised three control indices of type II diabetics, several factors related to control indices, and several items on a dietary self-management behavior questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses used control indices as dependent variables, and related factors as independent variables. Multiple regression analyses were also used for the relationships between dietary intakes as dependent variables and dietary self-management factors as independent variables.


Males showed a significant correlation between total energy intake per standard body weight per day and body mass index, and a significantly positive correlation between body mass index and waist circumference. Carbohydrate intake was significantly related to HbA1c. Other results showed characteristic relationships between various questionnaire items and "total energy intake, lipids intake, and carbohydrate intake", respectively. Females showed significant correlation between carbohydrate intake and both body mass index and waist circumference, as well as characteristic correlations between various questionnaire items and both reductions and increases in carbohydrate intake.


Our study discloses significant differences in dietary self-management behavior between males and females with type II diabetes. We anticipate that educational support using findings of our study can make a significant contribution to improvement in control indices of type II diabetics.

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