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Curr Protoc Cytom. 2005 May;Chapter 6:Unit 6.19. doi: 10.1002/0471142956.cy0619s32.

ZAP-70 staining in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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Hospital ClĂ­nic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common chronic leukemia in Western countries. The disease has an extremely variable clinical course, and several prognostic features have been identified to assess individual risk. The configuration of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IgV(H)) is a strong predictor of the outcome. CLL patients with unmutated IgV(H) status have an aggressive clinical course and a short survival. Unfortunately, analysis of IgV(H) gene configuration is not available in most clinical laboratories. A small number of genes are differentially expressed between unmutated IgV(H) and mutated IgV(H) clinical forms of CLL. One of these genes is ZAP-70, which is detected in leukemic cells from patients with the unmutated IgV(H) form of CLL. Flow cytometry presents advantages over other methods to detect ZAP-70, and its quantification by flow cytometry has proved its predictive value. This unit focuses on protocols to quantify ZAP-70 by flow cytometry in CLL.

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