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Pediatr Transplant. 2008 Nov;12(7):737-47. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2008.01018.x. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

The proteogenomic path towards biomarker discovery.

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Department of Pediatrics-Nephrology, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


The desire for biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases has never been greater. With the availability of genome data and an increased availability of proteome data, the discovery of biomarkers has become increasingly feasible. However, the task is daunting and requires collaborations among researchers working in the fields of transplantation, immunology, genetics, molecular biology, biostatistics and bioinformatics. With the advancement of high throughput omic techniques such as genomics and proteomics (collectively known as proteogenomics), efforts have been made to develop diagnostic tools from new and to-be discovered biomarkers. Yet biomarker validation, particularly in organ transplantation, remains challenging because of the lack of a true gold standard for diagnostic categories and analytical bottlenecks that face high-throughput data deconvolution. Even though microarray technique is relatively mature, proteomics is still growing with regards to data normalization and analysis methods. Study design, sample selection and rigorous data analysis are the critical issues for biomarker discovery using high-throughput proteogenomic technologies that combine the use and strengths of both genomics and proteomics. In this review, we look into the current status and latest developments in the field of biomarker discovery using genomics and proteomics related to organ transplantation, with an emphasis on the evolution of proteomic technologies.

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