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Hepatol Res. 2009 Jan;39(1):47-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2008.00410.x. Epub 2008 Aug 28.

Endoscopic thermal ablation therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: a multi-center study.

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Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.



The differing efficacies of radiofrequency ablation and microwave coagulation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. Therefore, we performed a multi-center study to assess the factors contributing to survival and local recurrences of HCC among patients with solitary tumors who underwent endoscopic thermal ablation as their primary treatment.


From six institutions, 391 patients with solitary HCC who were first treated by endoscopic thermal ablation were enrolled in this study and assessed retrospectively. We investigated age, gender, location of tumor, longest diameter of tumor, method of anesthesia, type of endoscope, method of thermal ablation, Child-Pugh classification, the Japan Integrated Staging score and the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate analysis with log-rank test and multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model.


On univariate analysis, advanced Child-Pugh score, advanced Italian Program score and local recurrences were significant predictors of poor survival. Young age (</=70), large tumor (>30 mm) and the use of the thoracoscopic approach were significant predictors for the development of local recurrence. On multivariate analysis, local anesthesia and advanced Child-Pugh score were independent predictors of poor survival. Young age, large tumor, local anesthesia and the use of the thoracoscopic approach were independent predictors for the development of local recurrence. The method of thermal ablation did not influence survival or local recurrence.


Differences in the effect on survival and local recurrence between microwave and radiofrequency were not observed in this retrospective, multi-center study of endoscopic thermal ablation for HCC.

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