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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 May;41(5):986-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.06.018. Epub 2008 Aug 5.

Growth arrest and DNA damage-45 alpha (GADD45alpha).

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Iron Metabolism & Chelation Program, Department of Pathology & Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.


Regulation of cell cycle and growth is integral for cell survival. The intricate mechanisms that control proliferation and cell cycle are numerous. The growth arrest and DNA damage (GADD)-inducible gene family is often up-regulated in response to various environmental stresses and drug therapies. GADD45alpha was the first stress-inducible gene determined to be up-regulated by p53 and is also a target for the p53 homologues, p63 and p73. When GADD45alpha is deleted or repressed, cells show uncontrolled proliferation. Furthermore, decreased GADD45alpha expression is also considered a survival mechanism, as cancer cells without this control can evade the apoptotic pathway leading to increased tumourigenesis. Drug therapies can act to directly or indirectly up-regulate GADD45alpha and promote apoptosis. As GADD45alpha is an essential component of many metabolic pathways that control proliferating cancer cells, it presents itself as an emerging drug target worthy of further investigation.

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