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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Nov;295(5):R1446-54. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.90511.2008. Epub 2008 Aug 27.

Recurrent hypoglycemia alters hypothalamic expression of the regulatory proteins FosB and synaptophysin.

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1
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. saan@u.washington.edu

Abstract

A limiting factor to the clinical management of diabetes is iatrogenic hypoglycemia. With multiple hypoglycemic episodes, the collective neuroendocrine response that restores euglycemia is impaired. In our animal model of recurrent hypoglycemia (RH), neuroendocrine deficits are accompanied by a decrease in medial hypothalamic activation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the medial hypothalamus may exhibit unique changes in the expression of regulatory proteins in response to RH. We report that expression of the immediate early gene FosB is increased in medial hypothalamic nuclei, anterior hypothalamus, and posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (THPVN) of the thalamus following RH. We identified the hypothalamic PVN, a key autonomic output site, among the regions expressing FosB. To identify the subtype(s) of neuronal populations that express FosB, we screened candidate neuropeptides of the PVN for coexpression using dual fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Among the neuropeptides analyzed [including oxytocin, vasopressin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)], FosB was only identified in CRF-positive neurons. Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive processes appear to impinge on these FosB-expressing neurons. Finally, we observed a significant decrease in the presynaptic marker synaptophysin within the PVN of RH-treated vs. saline-treated rats, suggesting that rapid alterations of synaptic morphology may occur in association with RH. Collectively, these data suggest that RH stress triggers cellular changes that support synaptic plasticity, in specific neuroanatomical sites, which may contribute to the development of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure.

PMID:
18753263
PMCID:
PMC2584852
DOI:
10.1152/ajpregu.90511.2008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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