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Immunol Res. 2008;41(3):248-66. doi: 10.1007/s12026-008-8037-x.

Foxp3 and Treg cells in HIV-1 infection and immuno-pathogenesis.

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Department of Microbiology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, USA.


FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are implicated in a number of pathologic processes including elevated levels in cancers and infectious diseases, and reduced levels in autoimmune diseases. Treg cells are activated to modulate immune responses to avoid over-reactive immunity. However, conflicting findings are reported regarding relative levels of Treg cells during HIV-1 infection and disease progression. The role of Treg cells in HIV-1 diseases (aberrant immune activation) is poorly understood due to lack of a robust model. We summarize here the regulation and function of Foxp3 in Treg cells and in modulating HIV-1 replication. Based on recent findings from SIV/monkey and HIV/humanized mouse models, a model of the dual role of Treg cells in HIV-1 infection and immuno-pathogenesis is discussed.

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