Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Oct;46(10):3303-10. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.025. Epub 2008 Aug 6.

One-year chronic toxicity of madder color in F344 rats--induction of preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions in the kidney and liver.

Author information

Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.


To evaluate chronic toxicity of madder color (MC), a natural food colorant extracted from the roots of Rubia tinctorum L., F344 rats were fed diet containing 0%, 0.2%, 1.0% or 5.0% MC for 53 weeks. Hematological changes including anemia and serum biochemical alterations indicating hepatotoxicity were demonstrated at 5.0% in both sexes. Relative weights of the liver were significantly increased from 1.0% in both sexes, and those of the kidney were significantly increased from 1.0% in males and from 0.2% in females. Histopathologically, atypical renal tubule hyperplasias were increased at 1.0% or higher in both sexes in association with increase of cell proliferative activity in the tubules. A renal cell adenoma was observed in a male rat receiving 5.0% MC. In addition, glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive liver cell foci were significantly increased at 5.0% in both sexes. These results indicate that MC has chronic toxicity targeting kidney, liver and blood cells. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that MC may have the carcinogenic potential in the kidney and the liver.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center