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J Urol. 2008 Oct;180(4 Suppl):1737-42. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.04.079. Epub 2008 Aug 21.

A review of pediatric glans malformations: a handy clinical reference.

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Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.



Lesions of the pediatric glans penis are an uncommon but important aspect of pediatric urological care. We reviewed the available literature on this topic and did not identify a comprehensive reference resource. We compiled our multi-institutional experience with such conditions to prepare a handy clinical reference source.


The diversity of pediatric glans penis lesions was documented by searching the English and nonEnglish literature as well as the archives at our institutions. Cases were included in the study if the patient(s) identified were younger than 18 years at initial presentation or documented to have first had a glans penis lesion when younger than 18 years. Hypospadiac-epispadiac anomalies of the glans were excluded.


From our institutions we identified 6 new cases of various pediatric glans lesions. Altogether the literature describes 137 distinct nondiphallia glans lesions and more than 100 cases of diphallia, including glans duplication. The nondiphallia reports consist of a total of 61 cystic lesions (44%), 33 vascular malformations (24%), 20 dermatological lesions (15%), 20 infectious lesions (15%) and 3 neurogenic lesions (2%). We did not identify a compact resource to compare these anomalies. Visual comparison permits structuring a differential diagnosis and determining urological treatment, which is typically excisional biopsy, laser treatment, sclerotherapy or topical steroid administration.


We present a visual reference of varied lesions of the pediatric glans penis, including 6 new cases, with urological significance. These lesions are always benign but they typically require surgical excision for a definitive pathological diagnosis.

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