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J Paediatr Child Health. 2008 Nov;44(11):642-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2008.01373.x. Epub 2008 Aug 19.

Epidemiology and outcome of acute kidney injury in New Zealand children.

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Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.



To determine the aetiology, incidence and short-term outcomes of New Zealand children with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) over a 6-year period.


A retrospective chart review of all children requiring RRT for AKI from January 2001 to December 2006 at Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand was conducted. The primary outcome was survival to discharge.


A total of 226 children required RRT for AKI over the 6-year study period. The annual incidence was 4.0 per 100,000 total population under 15 years of age. The commonest causes of AKI were post cardiac surgery (58%), haemolytic uraemic syndrome (17%), sepsis (13%) and glomerulonephritis (4%). The survival rate to hospital discharge was 89%. A total of 40% of all surviving children had one or more abnormalities at the time of discharge suggestive of ongoing renal dysfunction (hypertension, continuing need for antihypertensive medication, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or abnormal urinalysis). More Maori and Pacific Island children were treated for AKI than would be expected from population data (P < 0.0001). Sepsis and glomerulonephritis were seen more commonly as causes of AKI in Maori and Pacific Island children compared with New Zealand European children.


In our study, 40% of surviving children had evidence of short-term renal dysfunction at discharge following AKI. This suggests that all children should undergo a period of follow-up after any episode of AKI to look for resolution or further development of signs of renal injury.

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