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Schizophr Res. 2008 Sep;104(1-3):96-107. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2008.06.016. Epub 2008 Aug 20.

Genetic associations with schizophrenia: meta-analyses of 12 candidate genes.

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Department of Psychiatry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


Genetic association studies on schizophrenia (SZ) have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, resulting in a consensus that results are generally inconsistent. This consensus has begun to change as a result of meta-analyses (e.g., [Glatt, S.J. and Jonsson, E.G., 2006. The Cys allele of the DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism has a dominant effect on risk for schizophrenia: evidence from fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 141, 149-154.]). The SchizophreniaGene database ( has been a leader in meta-analyses of SZ association data, by dynamically and comprehensively cataloging all public genetic association studies, and preparing meta-analyses of case-control data. There are 19 "top" candidate genes from these analyses (access on December 20, 2007), showing the highest effect sizes and nominally significant associations of at least one variant in the meta-analyses of all ethnic samples or of samples of Caucasian ancestry. We selected 40 polymorphisms in 12 selected "top" genes for additional meta-analyses, which had at least one familial association data. We found gene-wide (correction for the number of meta-analyses for each gene) significant allelic association evidence for seven genes in the combined samples. The odds ratios (ORs) of the associated minor risk alleles range from 1.072 to 1.121, for DRD4, MTHFR, PPP3CC and TP53. For protective allele associations, the ORs are between 0.842 and 0.886, for DAO, IL1B, and SLC6A4. In population-based sub-analyses, we found significant results in four genes in Asians (ORs between 1.084 and 1.309 for DRD4, GABRB2, PPP3CC, and TP53), and one gene in European (OR of 0.888 for SLC6A4). The association of rs1816072 of GABRB2 with SZ in Asians was significant (adjusted P=0.048 after correction for 80 tests). No significant heterogeneity between case-control and family-based study designs was detected in 35 out of 40 polymorphisms. Our results further support eight potential SZ candidate genes and suggest that family data can reasonably be included in the meta-analysis of genetic associations.

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