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Int J Cancer. 2008 Nov 1;123(9):2213-6. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23750.

Reproductive, menstrual, and other hormone-related factors and risk of renal cell cancer.

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  • 1SOC Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, IRCCS "Centro di Riferimento Oncologico", Aviano (PN), Italy.


A role of hormone-related factors in renal cell cancer (RCC) etiology has been hypothesized, but the epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of reproductive, menstrual and other gender-specific variables on RCC risk among women. This study is part of a larger hospital-based, case-control study on RCC risk, conducted in northern, central and southern Italy. Cases were 273 women, below age 80, with histologically confirmed, incident RCC. Controls were 546 women hospitalized for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, frequency-matched to cases by age and center. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using multiple logistic regression models. RCC risk was inversely related to age at first birth (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0, for >/= 25 years vs. <25 years). Hysterectomy was found to double RCC risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.2). A negative association of borderline-statistical significance emerged for age at menarche, whereas, no associations were found between RCC risk and parity, menopausal status, age at menopause and use of hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives. Our findings give support to a role of hysterectomy in increasing RCC risk without corroborating, however, a major role of female hormone-related factors.

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