Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38(7):591-8. doi: 10.1080/10408440802026307.

U-shaped dose response in behavioral pharmacology: historical foundations.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, Environmental Health Sciences Division, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA. edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

Abstract

This article assesses the historical foundations of U-shaped dose-responses in behavioral pharmacology and toxicology with particular emphasis on schedules of reinforcement. Quantitative features of the drug dose response, which are consistent with the hormetic dose response model, are detailed along with possible mechanistic foundations to account for low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition responses. The article provides a reinterpretation of the biphasic dose response in the fixed interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement.

PMID:
18709567
DOI:
10.1080/10408440802026307
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center