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Gene. 2008 Nov 15;424(1-2):96-101. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2008.07.011. Epub 2008 Jul 18.

Complete mitochondrial genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Teleostei): insight into its phylogenic position within Cyprinidae.

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Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genetic Resources and Aquacultural Ecosystems, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 200090, China.


Genome comparison has shed light on many fields of both basic and applied research, including the study of species phylogeny. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to Cyprinidae, the largest freshwater fish family; but which subfamily it belongs to remains a controversial issue. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of grass carp was determined and phylogenetic analyses of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes and a nuclear gene (RAG 2) were conducted to explore the evolutionary relationship of grass carp with other cyprinid species. The mitogenome of grass carp is 16,609 bp in length. As with most other vertebrates, it contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using two different datasets (mitochondrial and nuclear) and three different computational algorithms (Bayesian, MP and ML) all revealed two distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that Cyprininae and Leuciscinae are two separate, valid subfamilies. Importantly, our phylogenetic result provides strong molecular evidence in support of the placement of Ctenopharyngodon in Leuciscinae rather than in Cyprininae.

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