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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Aug 19;52(8):644-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.05.022. Epub 2008 Jun 23.

Lack of association between adrenergic receptor genotypes and survival in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol or metoprolol.

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CardioDx, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94303, USA.



This study investigated the role of adrenergic receptor genetics on transplant-free survival in heart failure (HF).


Discordant results exist for genetic associations between adrenergic receptor alleles and end points of beta-blocker response in HF patients.


We identified 637 patients enrolled in 2 U.S. cardiovascular genetic registries with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction who were discharged on beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), and diuretic medications. End points were determined through the national Social Security Death Master File and transplant records. We genotyped 5 polymorphisms in 3 genes: ADRB1 (S49G, R389G), ADRB2 (G16R, Q27E), and ADRA2C (Del322-325) using 5' nuclease assays and performed a multivariable clinical-genetic analysis.


A total of 190 events (29.8%) occurred over a median follow-up of 1,070 days. Multivariable analysis showed a significant effect of 4 clinical factors on survival: age (p = 0.006), gender (p = 0.005), ejection fraction (p = 0.0002), and hemoglobin (p = 0.00010). There was no significant effect of the polymorphisms or haplotypes analyzed on survival.


Genotypes and haplotypes of ADRB1, ADRB2, and ADRA2C did not significantly affect survival in metoprolol-treated or carvedilol-treated HF patients in this study. These results complement the findings of 2 similarly designed previous studies, but do not replicate an association of ADRB2 haplotypes and survival. All 3 studies differ from a survival benefit reported for bucindolol-treated homozygous ADRB1 R389 individuals. This may be attributable to a drug-specific interaction between genotype and outcome with bucindolol that does not seem to occur with metoprolol or carvedilol.

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