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Curr Urol Rep. 2008 Sep;9(5):419-23.

Female urethral stricture disease.


Female urethral stricture disease is a rare entity. The most common etiologies are traumatic injury, iatrogenic injury, and inflammatory disease resulting in periurethral fibrosis. Hallmark symptoms are frequency and urgency, and may also be dysuria, hesitancy, slow stream, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Female bladder outlet obstruction is a difficult entity to define, and the subset representing stricture disease may also be elusive. The diagnosis of female urethral stricture disease is usually based on symptoms, meatal appearance, and difficult instrumentation of the patient. Other testing, such as urodynamics, voiding urography, or cystoscopy, may be helpful. Treatment options are conservative management with dilatation, endoscopic treatment, or open repair with various tissue flaps or grafts. Considerable controversy surrounds the efficacy of urethral dilatation in women with voiding dysfunction.

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