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J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 7;283(45):30566-75. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801756200. Epub 2008 Aug 12.

Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is a novel regulator of high glucose- and high insulin-induced extracellular matrix protein synthesis in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA.


High glucose (30 mM) and high insulin (1 nM), pathogenic factors of type 2 diabetes, increased mRNA expression and synthesis of lamininbeta1 and fibronectin after 24 h of incubation in kidney proximal tubular epithelial (MCT) cells. We tested the hypothesis that inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) by high glucose and high insulin induces increase in synthesis of laminin beta1 via activation of eIF2Bepsilon. Both high glucose and high insulin induced Ser-9 phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3beta at 2 h that lasted for up to 48 h. This was associated with dephosphorylation of eIF2Bepsilon and eEF2, and increase in phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Expression of the kinase-dead mutant of GSK3beta or constitutively active kinase led to increased and diminished laminin beta1 synthesis, respectively. Incubation with selective kinase inhibitors showed that high glucose- and high insulin-induced laminin beta1 synthesis and phosphorylation of GSK3beta were dependent on PI 3-kinase, Erk, and mTOR. High glucose and high insulin augmented activation of Akt, Erk, and p70S6 kinase. Dominant negative Akt, but not dominant negative p70S6 kinase, inhibited GSK3beta phosphorylation induced by high glucose and high insulin, suggesting Akt but not p70S6 kinase was upstream of GSK3beta. Status of GSK3beta was examined in vivo in renal cortex of db/db mice with type 2 diabetes at 2 weeks and 2 months of diabetes. Diabetic mice showed increased phosphorylation of renal cortical GSK3beta and decreased phosphorylation of eIF2Bepsilon, which correlated with renal hypertrophy at 2 weeks, and increased laminin beta1 and fibronectin protein content at 2 months. GSK3beta and eIF2Bepsilon play a role in augmented protein synthesis associated with high glucose- and high insulin-stimulated hypertrophy and matrix accumulation in renal disease in type 2 diabetes.

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