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J Hum Lact. 2008 Aug;24(3):278-88. doi: 10.1177/0890334408317617.

Are US mothers meeting the Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding targets for initiation, duration, and exclusivity? The 2003 and 2004 National Immunization Surveys.

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Department of Sociology at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.


Using data from the National Immunization Surveys (2003 and 2004), the authors model the influence of child, maternal, and state- or metropolitan-level factors on the initiation, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding to determine the characteristics of groups meeting the Healthy People 2010 targets. Analyses indicate that only children of college graduates meet the targets for breastfeeding at initiation, 6 months, and 12 months; no groups meet the target for exclusive breastfeeding. Results indicate a low prevalence of breastfeeding among children of single mothers, less educated mothers, participants in the Women, Children, and Infants program, and those living in nonwestern states and in areas of high newborn risk. Hispanic children, children of college graduates, and children living in the West consistently have higher odds of breastfeeding. Only the prevalence of breastfeeding early postpartum is near the Healthy People 2010 target of 75%, the percentages for 6 or 12 months and exclusive breastfeeding are well below.

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