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Prim Care Diabetes. 2008 Feb;2(1):31-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2007.12.001. Epub 2008 Jan 25.

Effects of the pharmacist's input on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risks in Muslim diabetes.

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Department of Pharmacy, Nue-Klong Community Hospital, Krabi Province 81130, Thailand.



To determine whether an extended pharmacy service would improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risks in diabetic Muslims.


Ambulatory literate adult diabetic Muslims with A1C >7% were randomly assigned to either a study group (usual care plus added pharmacist input, N=63) or a control group (usual care only, N=67). On four consecutive visits, at 2-month intervals, the study group met a pharmacist who educated and discussed with each patient regarding medication uses and diabetic treatment. This was accompanied by providing a diabetic pamphlet. Changes in A1C (mg/dL), lipid parameters (mg/dL), medication adherence (% pill count) and diabetic knowledge scores were measured.


There was no difference in A1C reduction between the study and the control groups (-0.8 vs. -0.6, p=0.56). Total cholesterol and LDL-C improvements were greater in the study group than in the control group (-31.6 vs. -1.2, p=0.000; -15.0 vs. +9.1, p=0.002, respectively). The percent pill count (+6.8 vs. -2.8, p=0.004) and diabetic knowledge scores (+2.1 vs. +0.6, p=0.002) were increased in the study group but not in the control group.


The pharmacist' s one-on-one education on diabetes accompanied by its pamphlet, in Muslim patients with diabetes did not affect glycaemic outcome but reduction in cardiovascular risks through lowering total cholesterol and LDL-C was found. The strategies may also improve diabetic knowledge and medication adherence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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