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Acc Chem Res. 2008 Nov 18;41(11):1534-44. doi: 10.1021/ar800098p.

Evolution of a fourth generation catalyst for the amination and thioetherification of aryl halides.

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1
Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. jhartwig@uiuc.edu

Abstract

Many active pharmaceuticals, herbicides, conducting polymers, and components of organic light-emitting diodes contain arylamines. For many years, this class of compound was prepared via classical methods, such as nitration, reduction and reductive alkylation, copper-mediated chemistry at high temperatures, addition to benzyne intermediates, or direct nucleophilic substitution on particularly electron-poor aromatic or heteroaromatic halides. However, during the past decade, palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of amines with aryl halides have largely supplanted these earlier methods. Successive generations of catalysts have gradually improved the scope and efficiency of the palladium-catalyzed reaction. This Account describes the conceptual basis and utility of our latest, "fourth-generation" palladium catalyst for the coupling of amines and related reagents with aryl halides. In the past five years, we have developed these catalysts using the lessons learned from previous generations of catalysts developed in our group and in other laboratories. The ligands on the fourth-generation catalyst combine the chelating properties of the aromatic bisphosphines of the second-generation systems with the steric properties and strong electron donation of the hindered alkylphosphines of the third-generation systems. The currently most reactive catalyst in this class is generated from palladium and a sterically hindered version of the Josiphos family of ligands that possesses a ferrocenyl-1-ethyl backbone, a hindered di-tert-butylphosphino group, and a hindered dicyclohexylphosphino group. This system catalyzes the coupling of aryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides with primary amines, N-H imines, and hydrazones in high yield. The reaction has broad scope, high functional group tolerance, and nearly perfect selectivity for monoarylation. It also requires the lowest levels of palladium that have been used for C-N coupling. In addition, this latest catalyst has dramatically improved the coupling of thiols with haloarenes to form C-S bonds. Using ligands that lacked one or more of the structural elements of the most active catalyst, we examined the effects of individual structural elements of the Josiphos ligand on catalyst activity. This set of studies showed that each one of these elements contributes to the high reactivity and selectivity of the catalyst containing the hindered, bidentate Josiphos ligand. Finally, we examined the effect of electronic properties on the rates of reductive elimination to distinguish between the effect of the properties of the M-N sigma-bond and the nitrogen electron pair. We have found that the effects of electronic properties on C-C and C-N bond-forming reductive elimination are similar. Because the amido ligands contain an electron pair, while the alkyl ligands do not, we have concluded that the major electronic effect is transmitted through the sigma-bond.

PMID:
18681463
PMCID:
PMC2819174
DOI:
10.1021/ar800098p
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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