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Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2008;46:149-87. doi: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.45.062806.094338.

Siderophores in fungal physiology and virulence.

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Division of Molecular Biology/Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.


Maintaining the appropriate balance of iron between deficiency and toxicity requires fine-tuned control of systems for iron uptake and storage. Both among fungal species and within a single species, different systems for acquisition, storage, and regulation of iron are present. Here we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanisms involved in maintaining iron homeostasis with a focus on siderophores, low-molecular-mass iron chelators, employed for iron uptake and storage. Recently siderophores have been found to be crucial for pathogenicity of animal, as well as plant-pathogenic fungi and for maintenance of plant-fungal symbioses.

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