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Med Res Rev. 2009 Mar;29(2):339-68. doi: 10.1002/med.20134.

Alpha2-agonists as analgesic agents.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino Firenze, Italy. mariapaola.giovannoni@unifi.it

Abstract

It is well known that norepinephrine is involved in the control of pain by modulating pain-related responses through various pathways. alpha(2)-Adrenergic agonists have a well-established analgesic profile and, in the recent years, have found a wider application, in particular as adjunct to anesthetics and analgesics in perioperative settings. This review analyzes the alpha(2)-agonists currently in clinical use, starting from the prototype Clonidine, as well as the most promising and studied molecules. In addition, an overview of the imidazoles, imidazolines, and hydroxyethyl-thioureas derivatives published in both the open and patented literature is presented, providing chemical description and pharmacological data. Finally, the most commonly alpha(2)-agonists used in veterinary medicine are described.

PMID:
18680204
DOI:
10.1002/med.20134
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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