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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Oct;52(10):3617-32. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00654-08. Epub 2008 Aug 1.

Antiviral effects of lamivudine, emtricitabine, adefovir dipivoxil, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate administered orally alone and in combination to woodchucks with chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

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  • 1Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.


Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are nucleotide analogs that inhibit the replication of wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant virus in HBV-infected patients, including those who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The combination of ADV or TDF with other nucleoside analogs is a proposed strategy for managing antiviral drug resistance during the treatment of chronic HBV infection. The antiviral effect of oral ADV or TDF, alone or in combination with 3TC or emtricitabine (FTC), against chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection was evaluated in a placebo-controlled study in the woodchuck, an established and predictive model for antiviral therapy. Once-daily treatment for 48 weeks with ADV plus 3TC or TDF plus FTC significantly reduced serum WHV viremia levels from the pretreatment level by 6.2 log(10) and 6.1 log(10) genome equivalents/ml serum, respectively, followed by TDF plus 3TC (5.6 log(10) genome equivalents/ml), ADV alone (4.8 log(10) genome equivalents/ml), ADV plus FTC (one survivor) (4.4 log(10) genome equivalents/ml), TDF alone (2.9 log(10) genome equivalents/ml), 3TC alone (2.7 log(10) genome equivalents/ml), and FTC alone (2.0 log(10) genome equivalents/ml). Individual woodchucks across all treatment groups also demonstrated pronounced declines in serum WHV surface antigen, characteristically accompanied by declines in hepatic WHV replication and the hepatic expression of WHV antigens. Most woodchucks had prompt recrudescence of WHV replication after drug withdrawal, but individual woodchucks across treatment groups had sustained effects. No signs of toxicity were observed for any of the drugs or drug combinations administered. In conclusion, the oral administration of 3TC, FTC, ADV, and TDF alone and in combination was safe and effective in the woodchuck model of HBV infection.

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