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Breast. 2008 Dec;17(6):596-603. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2008.06.003. Epub 2008 Aug 3.

Surgical management of Gynaecomastia: outcomes from our experience.

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Breast Care Unit, Mary Stanford Wing, 5th Floor, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust, Praed Street, London W2 1NY, UK.


The study aims to assess the morbidity and outcomes associated with gynaecomastia surgery. Between 1998 and 2007, 748 males with a mean age 44.67 years (10-90) were referred to us with breast-related symptoms. From these only 65 patients (102 breasts), with a median age of 26 years (11-82) had an operation for gynaecomastia. We considered for the purpose of the study each operated breast as an individual case. Overall, 42 cases of grade I gynaecomastia, 40 with grade II and 20 with grade III were treated mainly with subcutaneous mastectomies, 22 with skin reduction. Acute major complications requiring intervention occurred in 12 cases. Twenty-three cases required a late corrective operation for unsatisfactory results. The surgical approach appears to be the most important determinant of good cosmesis with the circumareolar approach to give the better results. The majority of the patients can be managed conservatively. Surgical candidates should be made aware of the significant morbidity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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