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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009 Sep 15;90(4):1120-7. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32185.

Effect of initiator on photopolymerization of acidic, aqueous dental model adhesives.

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Department of Oral Biology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, Kansas City, Missouri 64108, USA.


This study evaluated different initiator systems in self-etching model adhesives, in which camphorquinone (CQ) or [3-(3,4-dimethyl-9-oxo-9H-thioxanthen-2-yloxy)-2-hydroxylpropy] trimethylammonium chloride (QTX) was employed as a photoinitiator (dye). N-phenylglycine (NPG), ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (4E) or 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) was used as the coinitiator (CI). The role of diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPIHP) in the polymerization process was also studied. The concentrations of dye, CI, and DPIHP in model adhesives were all maintained at 0.022 mmol per gram monomer. The model adhesive contained two monomers: (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate) (2MP) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) whose mass ratio was 1:1, thus representing an acidic and hydrophilic formulation. The polymerization rate and the degree of conversion (DC) of the model adhesives with 5, 15, or 25% water content were determined using FTIR/ATR with a time-based spectrum analysis. The results indicated that with CQ as the photoinitiator, 4E appeared to be the most efficient CI, whereas the CQ-DMAEMA combination led to very low radical generation efficiency (DC < 5%). DPIHP exhibited little effect on the polymerization process. With QTX as the photoinitiator, however, DPIHP played an essential role. Without DPIHP, all three QTX-CI systems failed to initiate polymerization (DC < 5%). The QTX-DPIHP combination, on the other hand, was found to be a viable initiator system. The above results provide the critical information for the development of self-etching adhesive systems.

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