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Plant Cell. 2008 Jul;20(7):1915-29. doi: 10.1105/tpc.108.058529. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

XopD SUMO protease affects host transcription, promotes pathogen growth, and delays symptom development in xanthomonas-infected tomato leaves.

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Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


We demonstrate that XopD, a type III effector from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria (Xcv), suppresses symptom production during the late stages of infection in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. XopD-dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced chlorophyll loss, reduced salicylic acid levels, and changes in the mRNA abundance of senescence- and defense-associated genes despite high pathogen titers. Subsequent structure-function analyses led to the discovery that XopD is a DNA binding protein that alters host transcription. XopD contains a putative helix-loop-helix domain required for DNA binding and two conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic motifs required to repress salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-induced gene transcription in planta. Taken together, these data reveal that XopD is a unique virulence factor in Xcv that alters host transcription, promotes pathogen multiplication, and delays the onset of leaf chlorosis and necrosis.

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