Send to

Choose Destination
Transpl Int. 2008 Nov;21(11):1015-28. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00726.x. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

PD-1/PD-L1, PD-1/PD-L2, and other co-inhibitory signaling pathways in transplantation.

Author information

Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Biotechnology and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Leon, Leon, Spain.


Transplantation of cells, tissues and vascularized solid organs is a successful therapeutic intervention for many end-stage chronic diseases. The combination of co-stimulatory blockade with the delivery of negative signals to T cells through co-inhibitory receptors would provide a robust approach to modulating T-cell receptor signaling and improving alloantigen-specific control of transplant rejection. This approach based on fundamental knowledge of APC/T-cell interactions may complement conventional therapies in the near future to reinforce long-term allograft survival, and permit minimal immunosuppression. The focus of this review was primarily on two major co-inhibitory signaling pathways, namely PD-1/PD-L1/PD-L2 and BTLA/CD160/HVEM/LIGHT that have been thoroughly characterized in murine models of transplantation using genetically modified mice, specific monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center