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Am Heart J. 2008 Aug;156(2):216-226.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.03.024. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy for cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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Division of Cardiology and Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.



Small clinical studies of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy for cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction (MI) have yielded divergent results. The effect of G-CSF therapy on left ventricular (LV) function and structure in these patients remains unclear.


We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, CINAHL, and the Cochrane CENTRAL database of controlled clinical trials (July 2007) for randomized controlled trials of G-CSF therapy in patients with acute MI. We conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis across 8 eligible studies (n = 385 patients).


Compared with controls, G-CSF therapy increased LV ejection fraction (EF) by 1.09%, increased LV scar size by 0.22%, decreased LV end-diastolic volume by 4.26 mL, and decreased LV end-systolic volume by 2.50 mL. None of these effects were statistically significant. The risk of death, recurrent MI, and in-stent restenosis was similar in G-CSF-treated patients and controls. Subgroup analysis revealed a modest but statistically significant increase in EF (4.73%, P < .0001) with G-CSF therapy in studies that enrolled patients with mean EF <50% at baseline. Subgroup analysis also showed a significant increase in EF (4.65%, P < .0001) when G-CSF was administered relatively early (< or =37 hours) after the acute event.


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy in unselected patients with acute MI appears safe but does not provide an overall benefit. Subgroup analyses suggest that G-CSF therapy may be salutary in acute MI patients with LV dysfunction and when started early. Larger randomized studies may be conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of early G-CSF therapy in acute MI patients with LV dysfunction.

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