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Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug;52(2):S27-39. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.05.019.

Transient ischemic attack: risk stratification and treatment.

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Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


A major challenge facing the physician evaluating patients with transient ischemic attack is determining which patients are at highest short-term risk of stroke. A number of stratification schemes have been recently developed incorporating easily obtainable clinical information about the individual patient. Further, emerging data suggest a role for brain and vascular imaging in risk stratification. Many aspects of acute management of transient ischemic attack, such as which patients should be hospitalized and choice of acute antithrombotic therapy, remain controversial because of a lack of evidence from controlled trials. For longer-term prevention, there is much firmer evidence from multiple large randomized trials, and these data are reviewed in this article.

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