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Plant Mol Biol. 2009 Mar;69(4):347-60. doi: 10.1007/s11103-008-9374-9. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

Hormone interactions during vascular development.

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Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.


Vascular tissue in plants is unique due to its diverse and dynamic cellular patterns. Signals controlling vascular development have only recently started to emerge through biochemical, genetic, and genomic approaches in several organisms, such as Arabidopsis, Populus, and Zinnia. These signals include hormones (auxin, brassinosteroids, and cytokinins, in particular), other small regulatory molecules, their transporters, receptors, and various transcriptional regulators. In recent years it has become apparent that plant growth regulators rarely act alone, but rather their signaling pathways are interlocked in complex networks; for example, polar auxin transport (PAT) regulates vascular development during various stages and an emerging theme is its modulation by other growth regulators, depending on the developmental context. Also, several synergistic or antagonistic interactions between various growth regulators have been described. Furthermore, shoot-root interactions appear to be important for this signal integration.

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