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Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Aug;8(8):511-5. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70183-X.

HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

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Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.


In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men.

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