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Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;129(1):132-44. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2008.05.009. Epub 2008 Jul 22.

PDL-1 upregulation on monocytes and T cells by HIV via type I interferon: restricted expression of type I interferon receptor by CCR5-expressing leukocytes.

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Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


The programmed death (PD)-1 interacts with its ligand (PDL-1) delivering a negative signal to T cells. During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection PD-1 and PDL-1 expressions are increased. Here we show that monocytes and CCR5(+) T cells of HIV-uninfected donors upregulated PDL-1 upon in vitro exposure to HIV. HIV-induced PDL-1 required interferon (IFN)-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, production. Inhibition of endocytosis, required for HIV-induced IFN-alpha production, prevented PDL-1 upregulation. IFN-alpha-inducing Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists increased PDL-1 on monocytes and CCR5(+) T cells. CD80 and CD86 were also increased on monocytes and CCR5(+) T cells after HIV exposure, but only CD80 was IFN-alpha-dependent. IFN-alpha-receptor subunit 2 (IFNAR2), was expressed only by CCR5(+) T cells and monocytes, explaining why these leukocytes responded to HIV-induced IFN-alpha. Finally, T cell proliferation was improved by PDL-1 blockade in HIV-treated PBMC. In the setting of HIV infection, IFN-alpha may negatively affect T cell responses by inducing PDL-1.

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