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J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Jul;124(1):113-127. doi: 10.1121/1.2932337.

Temporal coherence of sound transmissions in deep water revisited.

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Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue. S.W., Washington, DC 20375, USA.

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  • J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Feb;125(2):1247.


This paper examines the signal coherence loss due to internal waves in deep water in terms of the signal coherence time and compare to data reported in the literature over the past 35 years. The coherence time of the early raylike arrivals was previously modeled by Munk and Zachariasen ["Sound propagation through a fluctuating stratified ocean: Theory and observation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 59, 818-838 (1976)] using the supereikonal approximation and by Dashen et al. ["Path-integral treatment of acoustic mutual coherence functions for arrays in a sound channel," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 1716-1722 (1985)] using the path integral approach; a -1 [corrected] power frequency dependence and a -1/2 [corrected] power range dependence were predicted. Recent data in shallow water in downward refractive environments with internal waves suggested that the signal coherence time of the mode arrivals follows a -3/2 power frequency dependence and a -1/2 power range dependence. Since the temporal coherence of the acoustic signal is related to the temporal coherence of the internal waves, based on the observation that the (linear) internal waves in deep and shallow waters have a similar frequency spectrum, it is argued that the modelike arrivals in deep water should exhibit a similar frequency dependence in deep and shallow waters. This argument is supported by a brute-force application of the path integral to mode arrivals based on the WKB relation between the ray and mode. It is found that the data are consistent with the -3/2 power frequency dependence but more data are needed to further test the hypothesis.

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