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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991 Apr;10(4):249-54.

Newly documented antimicrobial activity of quinolones.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Centre Médical Universitaire, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

The improved antimicrobial activity of newer fluoroquinolones and novel applications recently found for the drugs already marketed are reviewed. Several new compounds are more active against gram-positive bacteria than the presently marketed fluoroquinolones. WIN 57273, the most potent compound in vitro on a weight basis, is 16 to 128 times more active than ciprofloxacin against various staphylococci, streptococci, Enterococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus spp. BMY 40062, PD 117558, PD 127391, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin and tosufloxacin also show enhanced in vitro efficacy against these species. These drugs also possess increased activity against various anaerobes, notably Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and the Bacteroides fragilis group. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rapidly growing mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium leprae are often susceptible to quinolones displaying bactericidal activity which is potentially useful for curing difficult-to-treat mycobacteriosis. In addition, a number of new products, notably those containing a cyclopropyl group, are more active than reference fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium leprae. Sparfloxacin, BMY 40062 and WIN 57273 compare favorably with older fluoroquinolones in the killing of intracellular Legionella spp., and several of the newer compounds have greater antichlamydial potency. Improved antibacterial activity has also been found against Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas maltophilia. By contrast, the newer quinolones have similar or less activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were found to be active against protozoa, including Plasmodium spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani, but not against Toxoplasma gondii. In the near future, more specific research testing unusual pathogens may lead to the identification of quinolones with more selective activity.

PMID:
1864284
DOI:
10.1007/bf01966997
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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