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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Oct 12;363(1507):3233-43. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0090.

Review. Context-induced relapse to drug seeking: a review.

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1
Department of Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Group, School of Life Sciences, The University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Abstract

In humans, exposure to environmental contexts previously associated with drug intake often provokes relapse to drug use, but the mechanisms mediating this relapse are unknown. Based on early studies by Bouton & Bolles on context-induced 'renewal' of learned behaviours, we developed a procedure to study context-induced relapse to drug seeking. In this procedure, rats are first trained to self-administer drug in one context. Next, drug-reinforced lever responding is extinguished in a different (non-drug) context. Subsequently, context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking is assessed by re-exposing rats to the drug-associated context. Using variations of this procedure, we and others reported reliable context-induced reinstatement in rats with a history of heroin, cocaine, heroin-cocaine combination, alcohol and nicotine self-administration. Here, we first discuss potential psychological mechanisms of context-induced reinstatement, including excitatory and inhibitory Pavlovian conditioning, and occasion setting. We then summarize results from pharmacological and neuroanatomical studies on the role of several neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate, serotonin and opioids) and brain areas (ventral tegmental area, accumbens shell, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus) in context-induced reinstatement. We conclude by discussing the clinical implications of rat studies on context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking.

PMID:
18640922
PMCID:
PMC2607323
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2008.0090
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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