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Fitoterapia. 2008 Sep;79(6):401-18. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Jun 27.

Biology and chemistry of Ginkgo biloba.

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Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP - 176 061, India.


Ginkgo biloba has been existing on earth since 200 million years and is considered as a "living fossil". It is among the most sold medicinal plants in the world. A number of secondary metabolites representing terpenoids, polyphenols, allyl phenols, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids and lipids, inorganic salts and amino acids have been isolated from the plant. However, the main bioactive constituents are terpene trilactones and flavonoid glycosides which are considered responsible for the pharmacological activities of its standardized leaf extract. Scattered information is available on the extraction and analysis of these pharmacologically important constituents which have been compiled in the present review.

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